‘[Lewis] was always on a war footing; he believed others were likewise
The words of John Rothenstein, one-time director of the Tate and long-term Lewis champion, capture the common view of an aggressive, antagonistic and bellicose Wyndham Lewis. The reality was, of course, more complex – this most independent of thinkers was prone to wilful contradiction and deliberate provocation. It is without
There is for me no good war and bad war. There is only bad war.
The shadow of war was present from the very beginning. Lewis’s errant father was a former US
The First World War was the nemesis of Vorticism, its followers scattered by service or killed in the fighting. Lewis himself underwent a hiatus from artistic activity while serving as a subaltern with the 330th Siege Battery of the Royal Garrison Artillery. The art he subsequently created, both privately and as an official war artist for the Canadians and the British from 1917, was much changed from his Vorticist abstraction. He insisted that the
A Battery Shelled fulfilled an ambition to
Lewis’s resentment towards the First World War was acute and ingrained; it robbed him of his friend Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, denied him his most productive years and, most painfully, took his beloved mother. The strain of war, Lewis was convinced, caused her premature death in 1920. His own experiences serving at Messines Ridge and Passchendaele in 1917 would
In the 1930s, an individual crusade to prevent future war saw Lewis embark on a period of political writing, the ill-judged conclusions of which would have dire personal consequences. Already preferring authoritarian power over democracy (disdained as rule by the ‘herd’), a chief concern of Lewis was the perceived ‘left-wing orthodoxy’ of a blinkered British cultural elite. Virulent anti-communism blinded him to the evils of fascism. In 1931, his infamous essay Hitler portrayed the Nazi leader as a ‘man of peace’ and a barrier to Soviet incursion in Europe. Lewis backed his position five years later in Left Wings Over Europe, urging appeasement of Hitler and Mussolini and dismissing, like many others, warnings to the contrary from Winston Churchill as war-mongering. Similarly, in Count Your Dead – They Are Alive!, Lewis excused the actions of General Franco in the Spanish Civil War as necessary to resist communism.
Too late then was Lewis’s trip to Nazi Germany in 1937, which exposed the true nature of the regime. Hastily recanting his earlier pronouncements, he published The Jews: Are they Human?, a sincere but ham-fisted denouncement of antisemitism, and The Hitler Cult and How it Will End (1939). In this, Lewis derided the Führer as a deluded romantic confronted by realities he could not understand.
Yet the damage was done. For Lewis’s detractors, his association with Nazism was unforgivable, and his reputation has never recovered. He faced further criticism for his apparent desertion of Britain for Canada at the outbreak of the Second World War. Intended as a fresh start abroad after the controversial rejection of his portrait of T. S. Eliot by the Royal Academy in 1938, Lewis found life in the ‘stony desert’ of New York and ‘sanctimonious icebox’ of Toronto no more conducive. In poor health and facing destitution, he was cast a lifeline in 1943 by Britain’s official war art scheme. However, Lewis’s commissioned painting, A Canadian War Factory, proved problematic. Afflicted with self-doubt and indecision, he changed his approach twice, so that by his return to Britain in August 1945 it was still unfinished.
Lewis returned to a country exhausted by war and in the grip of austerity, a state of affairs he powerfully evoked in his collection of literary sketches, Rotting Hill. Despite approaching blindness, this final period of Lewis’s life was perhaps his most stable. As art critic for the BBC’s cultural weekly, the Listener, he championed a new generation of British artists, including Francis Bacon, Michael Ayrton, Barbara Hepworth and John Minton, and even advocated state-subsidised arts on a par with the newly formed National Health Service. In 1951, the BBC commissioned Lewis to complete his Dantesque afterlife trilogy, The Human Age, initially begun in 1928 with The Childermass. The three volumes conjured a nightmare fantasy world of corporate consumption, compliant masses and a hell operated by a dapper devil, Sammael. Lewis’s hellish imagery was undoubtedly derived from his experience of the Western Front and later by images of the Nazi concentration camps – though, as a whole, The Human Age was a response to the Cold War and the capitalism of the post-war era, which the author believed would lead inevitably to a future nuclear world war.
Thankfully, this is a prediction from this most astute of modern minds that
Richard Slocombe, Art Curator, IWM (Imperial War Museums)
This article is based on an edited extract from Wyndham Lewis: Life, Art, War published to accompany the exhibition at IWM North from 23rd June 2017 to 1st January 2018.