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(b Nantes, 15 Oct. 1836; d Château de Buillon, nr. Besançon, 8 Aug. 1902). French painter, illustrator, and printmaker. Originally he was called Jean-Jacques, but he took the name James as an expression of his Anglophilia. Early in his career he painted historical costume pieces, but in about 1864 he turned with great success to scenes of contemporary life, usually involving stylish women. Following his alleged involvement in the turbulent events of the Paris Commune (1871) he moved to London, where he lived from 1871 to 1882.

Text Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford University Press)