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(b Charlotte Amalie, St Thomas, Virgin Islands, 10 July 1830; d Paris, 13 Nov. 1903). French painter, printmaker, and draughtsman, born in the West Indies, where his parents (a French-Jewish father and a Creole mother) ran a prosperous general store. He was educated at boarding school in Paris, but he then returned to the Caribbean and did not settle in France until 1855. Before this he had been mainly self-taught, but he now studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Suisse, as well as copying in the Louvre.

Text Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford University Press)