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British abstract painter and maker of reliefs, born in London. He studied at *St Martin's School of Art, 1947–9, and at the Central School of Art and Design, 1949–51. After a period of experimentation with various styles and modes of expression in the early 1950s, he adopted a highly disciplined form of abstract painting. Writing in 1954 (Lawrence *Alloway, Nine Abstract Artists) he claimed a distinction between genuine abstract art and those works which ‘have no coherent thematic or aesthetic and must be judged as representing obscure personal styles of artists in various degrees of conflict with figuration or mimeticism’. Genuine ‘abstract’ art had two main trends, ‘architectonic’, as represented by *Mondrian, and ‘mathematical’, as represented by *Gabo.

Text source: A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (Oxford University Press)

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