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British painter, printmaker, and sculptor. He was born in Cardiff and grew up in Glasgow, where he studied at the School of Art from 1927 to 1930. During this period he was already working as an abstract artist. A travelling scholarship then took him to France, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden, after which he continued his studies at the *Royal College of Art in London and from 1934 to 1936 in Paris, where he worked in *Hayter's printmaking studio and met many leading artists, including *Kandinsky and *Mondrian. His work at this time was influenced by both *Cubism and *Surrealism, although the most important models were Wyndham *Lewis and the now almost forgotten *Vorticist sculptor Lawrence Atkinson (1873–1931). He took part in the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936, showing The Conquest of Time (1934, Tate), not in fact an especially Surreal work, inspired by the image of a kingfisher ‘still beside the moving river’.

Text source: A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (Oxford University Press)

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